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『聚焦』如何成为一名优秀的大学教师

发布日期:2020-06-16 发表者:陈治国 浏览次数:


我近期在美国马里兰大学教育优化中心网站上看到了他们教务长AnnWylie 给教师们提出的《如何成为一名优秀教师》二十多条建议。我读后觉得写得很实用,在这里摘录给大家并配上自己的翻译,重新排版后与大家分享,希望对大家的教育工作有所帮助。翻译不到之处还请大家直接阅读原文以获得最佳效果。



In providing these useful tips, Provost Wylie has built on the valuable recommendations handed down by several provosts before her.Wylie

教务长在前几任教务长传承下来的宝贵建议的基础上,提出这些有用的技巧,与大家分享。

Main Message: Being a good teacher is not hard. All you need to do is: take your job seriously,prepare before you go to class, make yourself available to students, and treat the students  with respect. Being a great teacher takes a lot more.
主要内容:成为一名好老师并不难,你需要做的就是:认真对待你的工作,备课,让学子能够找到你,并且尊重学子。而成为一名优秀教师则要做到更多。





Specific Recommendations
特别建议


Beginning of the Semester
在开学初

0. Hand out a course syllabus at the first class, andfollow it.
第一节课时就下发课程大纲并按大纲进行授课。

1. Let the students know what is expected of them(the material they will learn, the homework, exams,lab reports, etc.)
让学子知道他们要完成什么内容(将要学习的材料、作业、考试、实验报告等)

2. At your first class, state clearly the method bywhich grades will be determined. Do not changethis method later in the semester.
第一节课时,清楚地表明成绩的评定方法,并且这学期都不能再做修改。


3. Specify important dates (exams, project due dates)at the first class. Be considerate of students'constraints (e.g., religious holidays).
第一节课时就列出重要日期(考试、报告的提交日期等),需要考虑到学子的一些不便(如特别节日)。



Every Class/Lab
每节课/实验


4. Come to class early, begin class on time, and endclass on time. Stay a few minutes at the end ofeach class to answer questions, address concerns,etc.
早些进入教室,按时上课、下课。每节课都留下几分钟时间答疑解惑等

5. Start each class with a brief review of what wascovered in the last class and what you expect tocover in this one.
讲课前要简要复习上节课的内容并简述这节课将要学习的内容。

6. Go over the material to be covered before eachclass/lab. Rehearse your presentation.Understand the material yourself before you try toteach it.
每节课前要认真复习准备的授课材料,进行讲课演练。在授课前自己先要弄懂要讲的内容。

7.Treat every question as a good question, nomatter how bad you might think the question reallyis.
你要将每个问题都看作是一个很好的问题,不管你认为这个问题实际上有多糟糕。

8. Make the material easier, not harder for yourstudents. Education is not a rite of passage – thegoal is knowledge transfer and intellectual growth.
为学子准备的授课材料简单一些。教育不是例行公事,其目标在于传授知识和提升智慧。

9. Make eye contact with your students as you teach– you will be able to tell whether they understandyou from the look on their faces. In a large class,restlessness usually means you need to try a newapproach to the material.
授课时,要与学子进行眼神/目光交流,通过观察他们的表情你就能够看出他们是否听懂了。大班授课时,如果学子烦躁不安,那就说明你需要尝试新的授课方式了。

10. Use the same notation, terms, etc., as are used inthe textbook or reading assignments. Beconsistent. Refer to the textbook specifically.
使用与课本或阅读材料中相同的符号、术语,保持一致,并标出所参考的课本。



Homework and Exams
作业与考试


11. Don't assume that your class is the only one yourstudents are taking.
不要认为学子们只上你这一门课。

12. Make sure your exams are well thought out, andallow all students to show how much they havelearned. Consider questions with multiple partsthat start easy and get harder.
确保考试是经过深思熟虑的,能够让所有学子展示出他们的所学。将试题分为由易到难的多个部分。

13. Do not use problems from previous exams on yourexams. Take the time to write original questionsand problems. However, it is reasonable to repeatquestions used earlier in the semester on the finalexam.
不要用以前考试中的试题,要花时间出新试题。但是期末考试中出现学期中考试的题目是理所应当的。

14. Be just in your grading. Students who do bettershould get better grades.
成绩评定要公平合理。做的好的同学应该得到更高的成绩。

15. Return all homework, lab reports, and exams thevery next class. Make yourself available tostudents who want to discuss your grading of theirexam/assignment/lab report. If you make amistake grading an exam/assignment/lab report,correct your mistake.
下节课时就发回前一次课所有作业、实验报告和试卷。当学子想和你探讨他们考试/作业/实验报告的成绩时要能够找到你。如果考试/作业/实验报告分数有误,那么就改正过来。



Other General Advice
其它常规建议

16. Never turn a student away from your door, even ifthey come outside of stated office hours.
即使是在非答疑时间,也不要将学子拒之门外。

17. Identify those students who are having troublewith your class/ lab early in the semester, andmeet with them individually to address theseproblems. Offer to give them extraproblems/assignments if appropriate.
学期初就要明确参加你的课程/实验有困难的学子,并单独与他们讨论来解决这些问题。如果可以的话,告诉他们可以给他们布置额外的作业。

18. Get to know your students, but don't encouragepersonal relationships with them. Remember thatyou are in a position of authority over them, andany personal overtures to them on your part couldbe misinterpreted.
要了解你的学子,但不主张与学子之间建立私人关系。记住你处于高于学子的权威性位置,任何从你个人角度提出的建议都可能被误解。

19. Remember everything your professors did thatyou didn't like when you were an undergraduate,and don't do those things.
记住当你还是一名大学子时你的老师所做的那些令你讨厌的安排,不要重蹈覆辙。

20. Take pride in how many students do well in yourcourse, not in how many do poorly.
以你的课堂有多少学子表现出色为骄傲,而非有几个学子学习不好。

21. Bring the best out of your students. Great teachersdo this well.
发掘出学子最优秀的一面。优秀教师这点做的很好。



havefun! There is nothing more gratifying than being an effective teacher.  

享受教育!没有比成为一名成效卓著的教师更令人满足的了。


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